September 2019 WheelPeople

Articles
 

Message from the CRW President

Larry Kernan

Message from the CRW President

Larry Kernan

 

There are two important and timely things that I want to talk about this month – the Cranberry Harvest Century and our upcoming Board elections.

The 2019 Cranberry Harvest Century

This event has become incredibly popular with members and cyclists in our community.  2019 will be the third year that we have run this event which captures some of the most charming roads in New England.  There are two ways you should consider participating – Ride or Volunteer!

Ride

We have four strikingly beautiful routes of 100, 85, 63 and 52 miles.  The rides start in Middleborough and travel through the cranberry bogs in Rochester, Wareham, Carver and Acushnet.  All rides include a rest stop on the beautiful wharf in Mattapoisett.  The century ride includes a scenic loop through Myles Standish State Forest. You will enjoy food and drink at rest stops along the route, food and refreshments at the finish, and a great sense of accomplishment by completing a route with hundreds of other riders.   For those that like group rides, we will offer several rides led by CRW ride leaders with a choice of distances and paces.

To participate you must REGISTER IN ADVANCE.  In one week after our initial mailing, we were over 40% filled.  Don’t get shut out.

 

Volunteer

We can offer events like the Cranberry Harvest Century only due to the tremendous hard work of CRW volunteers.  It takes 60 volunteers to staff this event and many volunteers come back year after year.  Additionally, there are some volunteer jobs that you can do that allow you to actually ride the event.

  So, the big question is, "Why Should I Volunteer"  We've got plenty of great answers:

  • CRW is a volunteer organization and volunteering is what makes events like these possible.
  • It's FUN!  Seeing hundreds of riders streaming by is a great sight.  Hanging out at Rest Stops builds friendships and camaraderie.
  • All volunteers receive a t-shirt.
  • You can ride for free!  Or you can give your free pass to a friend or family member.
  • There will be a huge post-ride bash on Sunday, October 13th to celebrate!

We will have a Volunteer Planning Meeting and Party on Wednesday, September 4th in Wellesley, MA.  To RSVP for the party or to sign up for a volunteer position, please RSVP now!

CRW Board Elections

Elsewhere in this issue is an article outlining the mechanics of running for a Board Seat.  I’d like to share my views on what a CRW Director does and what makes a great Director.

CRW Directors set the strategic agenda for our club.   The Board sets policy for club finances, rides and grants. It appoints volunteers to fill important club officer positions and directs our activities with advocacy groups. The Board also helps to build connections with other clubs, bike shops and community groups. A great Director is someone who has been actively involved with the club and understands not only our history and traditions but has a vision for the future and is willing to help advocate and implement the changes necessary to move us forward.

We’re looking for candidates who will not only attend Board meetings but also actively participate in some of the tasks necessary to keep the club viable:

  • Running our rides program or leading rides
  • Coordinating our centuries
  • Managing CRW finances
  • Leading the Grant Committee
  • Recruiting volunteers
  • Managing our communications policy
  • Writing articles, editing and publishing WheelPeople
  • Managing our club insurance plans
  • Creating social events and workshops
  • Managing the CRW kit program
  • Running special projects such as our recent Name Tag effort
  • Leading CRW technology efforts such as our website and new apps

 

And there is much, much more.  If you are that special person ready to step up and represent our membership or have great ideas for the club, we look forward to having you on our Board.

Thanks for listening and I look forward to seeing many of you at the Cranberry Harvest Century on Sunday, October 6th.

 

 

CRW Board Elections

CRW Board Elections

CRW Elections for three Board Members are coming up.  Please see the President’s Message for a description of the CRW Director role.

There are 9 Directors on the CRW Board and the Past President serves in an ex officio role for one year after his or her term.  Each year, CRW members elect 3 directors for a 3 year term.  A director is allowed to serve no more than two consecutive 3 year terms.

Board of Directors meetings are held every two months in odd-numbered months.  One of those meetings is anticipated to be an all-day planning meeting.

In this election, there are three open Director seats to be filled.  The newly elected Directors will serve from January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2022.  One of the current CRW directors has served two consecutive terms and is not eligible.  The other two incumbents have not indicated that they will run.

This is the process for Election of the Board based on CRW’s bylaws:

  • Any member may submit his / her own name as a candidate for the current Board vacancies, not later than September 20th.  Each candidate may submit a statement of 250 words or less, to be disseminated to the membership and included in the ballot.
    • Submit your nomination and statement to president@crw.org
    • The statements will appear in the October WheelPeople which will be released prior to October 1st.

 

  • The Election of Directors shall be by electronic ballot transmitted to all members.  Votes of all members shall be confidential.  Voting shall be allowed October 1 to October 15.  The Secretary shall verify and publish the results no later than October 30th.
    • All individual CRW members receive 1 vote and all household memberships receive 2 votes per household.
    • The names of the newly elected Directors will appear in the November WheelPeople.

 

  • The new Board members will attend the November CRW Board Meeting.  At this meeting, all Directors who will serve during 2020 will elect the CRW President who will serve in 2020.

 

 

How to Keep In Touch with CRW

Robyn Betts

Between bike commutes to work and longer weekend rides, I spend a good chunk of my free time on my bike, probably just like many of you. But I must confess, I spend a lot more time per week staring at my phone, in front of a computer, or surfing the web for either work or play. It's far too easy to spend idle minutes in line at the grocery, the coffee shop, or at night on the couch mindlessly scrolling through Facebook or Instagram, reading the news, texting friends, or just following whatever crosses my path like an Internet lemming. Sound familiar?

Well, like it or not, all of the digital resources at our fingertips nowadays can help us stay connected with the things we love, including cycling and the CRW.

What I’m trying to say is that if you don't already have a digital addiction, we can help you start one. Did you know that we have a presence on 8 different digital outlets to keep you up to date on what's happening with the club? See our list below for all the ways you can keep in touch and up to date with all things CRW. Oh, and being a club member entitles you some free stuff, too! Read on to find out.

Wheelpeople Newsletter

We know that our flagship monthly email newsletter isn't news to you, because you're reading it right now! But did you know you can find old archived newsletters dating all the way back to 1967? Get there anytime from the link at the bottom of the homepage and get lost in CRW history.
 

RideWithGPS Club Account

RideWithGPS is a site that allows you to create routes and print out cue sheets or download a route to a GPS-enabled device (like your Garmin or your smartphone) for navigation. All rides from the CRW ride library are stored here and you can access them all as a member of the club. Better yet, joining the CRW club on RideWithGPS gives you free access to premium features like turn-by-turn voice navigation and route/map downloads to your phone for offline usage for all CRW routes.
 

Strava
Strava is a social network for cyclists and other GPS-based fitness enthusiasts. People upload the routes they rode (ran, hiked, etc.), along with pictures and comments about their activity. Connect with other members you rode with, give kudos, comment on posts, view our club Strava leaderboard, and see upcoming events. Ride leaders can request that their rides be posted on Strava by emailing Rami Haddad at mcccxxv@me.com. This is one of the club's newest digital hangouts, but it's growing by leaps and bounds every day. We now have 598 CRW club members on Strava!

 

Google Group Discussion Board

For general cycling banter, questions about rides or riding, and occasional for-sale or free items, head over to our Google Group for the CRW. It's been around a while and is quite active with 768 members.   For more information on how to subscribe to the Google Group, check out https://www.crw.org/content/facebook-internet-mailing-list.
 

Facebook

Follow us on Facebook to see upcoming rides/events, and see posts and pictures from the rides. If you're not on Facebook, you can send any pictures you want to appear there to Facebook admin and CRW member Meghan Kopaska at mkopaska30@comcast.net
 

Instagram

Instagram is a photo-based social network, also known as Insta or IG, if you're hip with the lingo. Tag charles_river_wheelers on your pics from the ride to share the fun you had with fellow members. If you're not on Instagram, you can send any photos you want to appear there to our Instagram maven and CRW member Meghan Kopaska at mkopaska30@comcast.net.
 

Meetup

Meetup seems to be a spot where people new to the area find out about the CRW. Maybe that's how you got here! If so, welcome! There are 1680 people in our CRW meetup group, where you can find posts about upcoming rides.
 

Twitter

We're not as active as *ahem* some people on Twitter. The last post was last September, 2018, so this is definitely not our most active social media presence.
 

Pinterest

Check out our bike-inspired mason jar crafts, wood pallet projects, home decoration tips and recipe inspiration! Our Pinterest recommendations will really take your biking to the next level!
 

Just kidding. We're not on Pinterest. But there sure are a lot of ways to keep in touch! Maybe too many!

Call for VP of Communications

Which leads me to this: Would you like to be the person who clarifies and manages our communications strategy and presence? We are looking for a VP of Communications for the club. If you'd like to volunteer your time and have thoughts about how best to get the word out about the CRW and communicate with our members, please get in touch with president@crw.org.

 

 

"Your article here"

CRW Communications Committee

"Your Article Here"

CRW Communications Committee

 

Join in! WheelPeople wants you…. to contribute to the newsletter. Send in your:

  • Description of a recent fun bike trip you did, such as an international trip
  • Favorite photos from rides
  • Cartoons about riding
  • Point/counterpoint to address a topic that may benefit from varied perspectives
  • Anything else related to biking, such as updates on new equipment, favorite routes, etc.

 

Send in your contribution by the 15th of any month to editor@crw.org.

 

 

Bicycling Alone Across the Country at Age 70

Eli Post

 

Bicycling Alone Across the Country at Age 70

We begin this fall’s lecture series on Thursday September 26 with a presentation by long-time club member John Springfield as he takes you on his 2,900 mile cross-country bicycle trip. John has been touring for 55 years, more than some of you have been on this planet. Learn what’s it’s like to take on this challenge alone at age 70 as he dodged tornadoes in Mississippi, climbed 3,500 feet in sweltering heat, and mixed with authentic cowboys in the Texas desert. This was not John’s first cross-country but perhaps the most rewarding considering his age. Some 40 years ago, a 27 year old Springfield biked from Seattle to Boston when he was in the best shape of his life, but this last time youth was no longer on his side. He encountered headwinds, rain, traffic, scenic roads and a variety of the good, bad and ugly. This presentation is a must if you are contemplating a cross-country trip or if you simply want to enjoy one vicariously. The presentation specifics are included below and we hope to see you there.

Date: Thursday September 26, 2019
Time: 6 to 7 PM Social hour with refreshments, 7 PM Presentation
Where: Lexington Depot, 13 Depot Square Lexington
Parking: There is a town parking lot adjacent to the Depot.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Flat Versus Clip-in Pedals

Eli Post, Lisa Najavits

Most of us grow up incrementally with regards to cycling. As kids, we start off on bikes with training wheels, and perhaps as teenagers we move on to bikes with gears and other bells and whistles. At some point, when we take biking more seriously, we gravitate to road bikes, and wear bike specific clothing. We also learn from our riding friends which equipment to use, and other protocols. Generally, we accept these protocols as given or scientifically established, especially when everyone else is doing or using it. For example, on any given club ride most riders will be clipped into their pedals. In the world of cycling, it's said  that in order to engage in serious riding you need foot retention, which means using some type of clip-in pedal system to provide maximum power transfer between your legs and the bicycle's transmission. The long-established basis for clipless is the claim that they offer power on the upstroke. That is, you not only generate power when you push down on them, but when you pull up as well.           

However, there are some real advantages to flat pedals, and also some surprises from scientific studies.  This is especially relevant when comfort and freedom from pain requires a change—for example, if you are an older rider and not competing in the Tour de France. Eli, an author of this article, says, ”After decades of clip-in use, I broke ranks and switched from clip-ins to flat pedals. I was having balance issues and was not comfortable being clipped in. I am not alone making the switch, and have a friend whose leg was in pain when fixed in one position, know another who had hip surgery and was having trouble unclipping, another who had a leg fracture from a home accident and does not have the leg strength to unclip, and finally someone who was in a recent accident and no longer is comfortable being clipped in.”

If you love your clip-ins, then by all means keep using them. But flat pedals may serve your needs and should not be dismissed as kid stuff. Indeed, there are some interesting new developments and recent studies with flats.

For example, Global Cycling Network conducted a comparison of clip-ins vs. flat pedals, measuring one. rider’s cadence, heart rate, VO2, and lactate in real time with each type of pedal. The results are surprising, and the rider’s reaction to them is equally fascinating:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNedIJBZpgM

Also relevant to this topic is the development of a new product: a much longer flat pedal--same width as regular flats, but much longer front-to-back (143 mm)-- called Catalyst pedals. The originator of these pedals focuses on the idea of by supporting both the front and back of the arch of the foot, and having the midfoot aligned with the spindle, creates better power with less fatigue and helps recruit the glutes and hips more than the calves and Achilles tendon. The Catalyst website identifies physiology studies that they state support this and make a case for longer flat pedals vs. clip-ins. Reviews for the pedals are cited at the end of this article. Extra-wide flat pedals have been around for a long time and serve other purposes, but the new ultra-long pedal is unique.

There’s a lot more to say about flats vs. clip-ins including optimal placement of the foot on the pedal, injury prevention, rider comfort, relevance to road vs. mountain-biking, and the state of the science. This article came about in a discussion the authors had after a ride. Both of us have tried the Catalyst pedals and use them. We are letting you know there is a new option available as well as new developments in this area.

References

 
 
 
 

WheelPeople Looking Back

CRW Communications Committee
 
10 Years Ago - September 2009
Unlike in 2019, the Climb To The Clouds on July 19, 2009 had “the best weather we have ever had” for the 730 riders who rode routes of 50, 60, 80, 90, or 100 miles. The summit of Mount Wachusett was closed for construction, but riders were able to climb up Mile Hill Road to the Visitors Center. Among the ride listings for September was a reminder that the Mayor’s Cup race (RIP) around Government Center would be taking place on September 26. 2009 mileage through July was 145,811, and John Bayley sat atop the leaderboard with 7,038 miles for the year. 
 
25 Years Ago - September 1994
The September 1994 edition contained a ride report from one of CRW’s founding fathers, Ralph W. Galen. This ride report was the 21st and final installment chronicling Ralph’s two year journey around the world, covering the distance between Orlando, FL and Somerville. Jack Donohue offered a tip for those missing handlebar plugs: use a wine cork. This helpful article even offered pairing advice (“... if you have a vintage Peugeot, this might merit a Bourdeaux of similar vintage. Owners of fine domestic bikes (Trek, Cannondale) might try a nice California Cabernet Sauvignon.”) 1994 mileage through July was 175,358, and John Bayley sat atop the leaderboard with 10,121 miles for the year. 
 
50 Years Ago - September 1969
CRW riders canceled the leisure ride scheduled for Sunday, September 7, 1969 in order to ride with members of the International Bicycle Touring Society in the greater Boston area and around Cape Cod. Sunday, September 14, 1969 was National Century Day, and Norman Satterthwaite and Stuart Bradford led CRW’s efforts from Cambridge out to Ayer, Fitchburg, and through Townsend State Forest. Two weeks later, on Saturday, September 27, Bruce Bailey led an out-and-back double century to Cape Cod via New Bedford that departed from Mount Auburn Street in Cambridge at 12am. CRW did not begin collecting member mileage until 1980, so you’ll have to wait until 2030 for totals to appear in this space.
 
 

The Athlete's Kitchen

Can Vegan Athletes Become Elite Athletes?

Fact or Fiction: The vegan diet is unlikely to support optimal performance in athletes? Fiction! No evidence suggests a nutritionally balanced vegan diet impairs athletic performance (1,2). Google vegan athletes; you'll find an impressive list of Olympians and elite athletes from many sports (football, basketball, tennis, rowing, etc.). That said, vegans (and vegetarians) could choose a diet that helps them be powerful athletes, but do they?

Some vegans eat too many salads, sweet potatoes & berries (or chips and candy), but not enough beans, nuts, and seeds. They eliminate animal protein but fail to replace it with enough plant protein. Weight-conscious vegan athletes who restrict calories often reduce their intake of protein and other nutrients. Hence, dieting vegan athletes need to be extra vigilant to consume a menu supportive of their needs.

Two keys to thriving on a balanced vegan (and vegetarian) sports diet are to consume:

1) adequate vitamins and minerals (in particular iron, zinc, calcium, iodine, vitamins D and B-12) as well as omega-3 fats, and

2), adequate protein from a variety of plant foods that offer a variety of amino acids (the building blocks of protein).

The amino acid leucine is of particular importance for athletes. Leucine is an essential amino acid your body cannot make, so you need to get it from food. Leucine triggers muscles to grow. It also can help prevent the deterioration of muscle with age. When you lift weights, you stimulate the muscles to take up leucine (and other amino acids); this triggers muscular growth. Hence, leucine is a very important component of an athlete's diet!

The richest sources of leucine are animal foods, such as eggs, milk, fish, and meats. When a meat-eating athlete swaps beef for beans and other plant-proteins (hummus, quinoa, nuts, tofu, etc.), the swap commonly reduces leucine intake by about 50%. Hence, vegan athletes need to pay attention to getting enough high-quality plant-proteins that offer the optimal amount of leucine (about 2.5 grams per meal or snack). That means, vegans want to consistently enjoy soy, beans, legumes, seeds and/or nuts regularly at every meal and snack. Don't have just oatmeal for breakfast; add soy milk and walnuts.  Don't snack on just an apple; slather apple slices with peanut butter. Enjoy it with a swig of soy or pea milk instead of almond milk.

This table compares the leucine content of plant and animal foods. Note that when you swap animal-based protein for plant-based protein (such as trade eggs for peanut butter, or dairy milk for soy milk), you'll likely need to eat more calories of plant-foods to get the same amount of leucine as in animal foods:

 

Animal food

Leucine

(g)

Calories

 

Plant food (swap)

Leucine

(g)

Calories

Eggs, 2 large

1.1

155

 

Peanut butter, 2 Tb

0.5

190

Milk, 8 oz

1.0

120

 

Soy milk, lowfat

0.5

105

Tuna, 5-oz can

2.3

120

 

Black beans, 1/2 c

0.7

110

Chicken, 3 oz cooked

2.1

150

 

Tofu, extra firm, 6 oz

1.4

140

Cheese, 1 oz

0.6

115

 

Almonds, 3/4 oz.

0.3

120

Beef, 5 oz ckd

3.8

265

 

Lentils, 1 cup

1.3

225

 

How much protein and leucine do you need?

A 150-pound vegan athlete who seriously wants to build muscle should plan to eat about 20 grams of protein with 2.5 grams leucine every 3-4 hours during the day. (If you weigh more or less than 150 pounds, adjust that target accordingly.)  Here's a sample 1,800-calorie vegan diet (read that, weight reduction diet for most athletes, both male and female) that offers adequate protein at every meal —but not always 2.5 grams leucine. To be a dieting vegan athlete requires some menu planning. Some dieters choose to be "mostly vegan." This flexibility allows for leucine-rich milk, eggs & fish.

 

Sample 1,800 calorie Vegan Diet

Leucine

Protein

Calories

B. 2 slices whole wheat toast

0.5 g

10. g

200

    2 tablespoons peanut butter

0.5

8

200

   1 cup soy milk

0.5

7

100

Sn: 1 medium apple

trace

0.5

100

L:     Salad: greens plus vegetables

0.3

4

50

         1/2 cup chick peas

0.8

6

100

         1/4 cup sunflower seeds

0.9

12

350

         1 tablespoon oil

--

--

100

Sn:   1/3 cup hummus

0.2

3

100

         10 baby carrots

trace

0.5

50

D:    1/3 cake tofu

1.1

12

100

         1 cup cooked brown rice

0.4

6

250

         2 cups broccoli

 

0.5

7

100

Total for the day:

10

76

1,800

 

Target for the day:

 

2.5 g /meal

 

65-108

 

1,800

 

Note: I have not included fake meats such as the Impossible Burger or Beyond Burger in this menu. Those are ultra-processed foods that have a questionable place in any diet. I have also not included almond milk (a poor source of protein) nor supplements with leucine. You want to choose whole foods; they come with a matrix of nutrients that boost protein synthesis and can better invest in your health, recovery and overall well being.

Nancy Clark MS RD counsels both casual & competitive athletes at her Boston-area office (617-795-1875). The new 2019 edition of her best selling Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook is available at www.NancyClarkRD.com,as is info about her popular online workshop.

For additional information about a vegan sports diet:

1) Wirnitzer, K. et al. 2018. Health Status of Female and Male Vegetarian and Vegan Endurance Runners Compared to Omnivores—Results from the NURMI Study (Step 2).  Nutrients 11(1):29  doi: 10.3390/nu11010029 (Free access)

2) Rogerson, D. 2017. Vegan diets: Practical advice for athletes and exercisers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 14: 36  doi: 10.1186/s12970-017-0192-9 (Free access)

--

Nancy Clark, MS RD CSSD
Sports nutrition counselor
NEW 2019 Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook
www.nancyclarkrd.com (Books, presentations)
Twitter: @nclarkrd  
Blog: http://nancyclarkrd.com/blog/
Office: 1155 Walnut St., Newton Highlands, MA 02460
Phone:617-795-1875  Fax:617-963-7408
Online Workshop: www.NutritionSportsExerciseCEUs.com 

"Helping active people win with good nutrition."

 

 

Dr Mirkin.com

Dr. Gabe Mirkin's Fitness and Health e-Zine
 
Calories from Foods Vary with Preparation Method and Your Gut Bacteria
 
Calorie counts listed on food packages or restaurant menus are deceptive because they tell how much energy that food has when it is burned in a laboratory. The number of calories absorbed in your body is likely to be quite different, depending on how the food is prepared and what types of bacteria you have in your colon.

Food that is absorbed from your intestines and colon is either burned for energy and body functions, or stored as fat in your body. The less food that is absorbed, and the more that is burned by being active, the easier it will be to maintain your ideal weight. Anything that reduces the size of food particles or breaks down the chemical components of food increases the calories you absorb from that food. For example, grinding whole grains into flour or cooking starchy vegetables increases the number of calories you absorb from those foods.

How You Absorb Food
You cannot absorb whole foods. Food is separated in your intestines into carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Your body cannot absorb these components either. Carbohydrates must be broken down into single sugars, protein must be broken down into single amino acids or chains of amino acids, and fat must be broken down into fatty acids.

Most foods that come from plants are made up primarily of carbohydrates: sugars that are single or in molecules of two or three up to millions of sugars bound together. Starches contain hundreds and thousands of sugars bound together. Fiber contains up to millions of sugars bound together so tightly that the human intestines cannot separate them and therefore cannot absorb them. Much of the foods that you eat passes to your colon where more than 100 trillion bacteria do have the enzymes to break down food so you can absorb a lot of calories through your colon.

Some types of bacteria in your colon may make you fatter, while others could help you to stay slim. One study on mice done by Jeffrey Gordon at Washington University in St. Louis showed that feeding mice a diet high in fat and low in fruits, vegetables, and other sources of soluble fiber reduced amounts of healthful Bacteroides and increased amounts of fattening Firmicutes in their colons to significantly increase absorption of calories from their food (Science, Sep 6, 2013:341(6150)). He then placed skinny mice in the same cages as the fat mice fed this unhealthful diet and they also became fat, presumably because mice acquired each other's bacteria by eating their stool.

Raw Starches are Poorly Absorbed
When humans eat raw root vegetables such as potatoes, turnips, cassava, yams, and rutabagas, they absorb almost no calories. However, boiling, baking or frying them markedly increases the calories you can absorb. Starches in root vegetables or in whole grains such as wheat are composed mostly of multi-sugar molecules called amylopectin and amylose, which your digestive enzymes have great difficulty breaking down. Cooking gelatinizes starches so they are easily exposed to intestinal enzymes that break them down so they are readily absorbed, and the remainder passes to your colon where bacteria break them down further so you absorb even more calories.

Whole grains such as wheat, rye, barley, rice and quinoa are seeds of grasses. Uncooked, they cannot be broken down at all and will pass out undigested. Even when whole grains are cooked, the enzymes in your intestines often cannot break through the tough outer seed coating, so they are hard to absorb. However, if you grind a whole grain into flour, it is easily absorbed, and cooking the flour (in pasta, bakery products and so forth) increases the calories you absorb even more.

Absorption of Protein
When you eat meat, you eat mostly muscle which is made of very poorly absorbed collagen. If you ate raw, un-ground meat you would get very few calories from it. Cooking meat causes the muscle fibers to loosen and separate, making it easier to chew and digest. Cooking also changes the structure of the proteins, causing them to unwind and become more susceptible to intestinal enzymes that break down protein to increase absorption. Grinding meat into hamburger markedly increases absorption and reduces the amount of time you have to chew it. Organ meats such as kidneys, liver and brains are also easier to digest because they are low in collagen so you do not have to chew them as long as when you eat muscle.

Many body builders and weight lifters eat raw eggs with the belief that raw eggs grow larger muscles, but when you eat uncooked eggs, you absorb less than 50 percent of their protein. When you eat cooked eggs, you absorb up to 95 percent. Heat denatures protein so that the protein molecules swell and are more exposed to the intestinal enzymes that separate protein into its building blocks called amino acids. You then absorb a much greater percentage of the protein because single amino acids and chains of amino acids, but not whole proteins, can pass readily into your bloodstream.

Soft Foods Have More Calories
Rats who ate uncooked cereals that were softened by being puffed with air (similar to "puffed wheat" or "puffed rice" cereals) were six percent heavier and had 30 percent more abdominal fat than rats who had been fed hard cereal pellets for 22 weeks (Journal of Dental Research, 2003;82:491-494). Abdominal fat is a sign of higher blood sugar and insulin levels and risk for diabetes. Researchers showed that the rats fed hard food had a higher rise in body temperature after meals because they used significant energy in the act of chewing and digesting the food. The hard-pellet rats also had nearly twice the volume of feces, showing that they had absorbed far less of their food.

My Recommendations
If you are trying to lose weight or to control your weight, forget about counting calories. Eat more foods that are not cooked, ground or softened.
• Eat a wide variety of raw vegetables and fruits.
• You can eat cooked fruits and non-starchy vegetables also, because they are usually low in calories even when cooked.
• Eat WHOLE grains, beans, seeds and nuts that have not been ground into flour.
• Avoid sugared drinks because virtually 100 percent of their calories are rapidly absorbed.
• Restrict all sugar-added foods.
• Restrict foods made from flour such as bakery products and pastas.
I also recommend Intermittent Fasting for weight loss and long-term weight control.
What You Eat, Not Your Genes, Determines Your Microbiome
Are Processed Foods Making Us Fatter?
How Soluble Fiber Promotes Good Gut Bacteria